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Diffusion of innovations /

by Rogers, Everett M.
Publisher: New York : Free Press, 2003Edition: 5th ed.Description: xxi, 551 p. : ill. ; 24 cm.ISBN: 0743222091; 9780743222099.Subject(s): Diffusion of innovations | Diffusion of innovations -- Study and teaching -- History
Contents:
1. Elements of diffusion : What is diffusion? -- Four main elements in the diffusion of innovation : The innovation ; Communication channels ; Time ; A social system -- 2. History of diffusion research : The beginnings of diffusion research in Europe : Gabriel Trade and imitation ; Georg Simmel's stranger ; The British and German-Austrian diffusionists -- The rise of diffusion research traditions : Paradigms and invisible colleges ; The anthropology research tradition ; Early sociology ; Rural sociology ; Public health and medical sociology ; Communication ; Marketing ; Geography ; General sociology ; Trends by diffusion research traditions -- A typology of diffusion research -- 3. Contributions and criticisms of diffusion research : The status of diffusion research today -- Criticisms of diffusion research : The pro-innovation bias of diffusion research ; The individual-blame bias in diffusion research ; The recall problem in diffusion research ; The issue of equality in the diffusion of innovations -- 4. Generation of innovations : The innovation-development process : Recognizing a problem or need ; Basic and applied research ; Development ; Commercialization ; Diffusion and adoption ; Consequences -- Socioeconomic status, equality, and innovation development -- Tracing the innovation-development process : The shortcomings of tracer studies ; Future research on the innovation-development process -- The agricultural model -- 5. Innovation-decision process : A model of the innovation-decision process -- The knowledge stage : Which comes first, needs or awareness of an innovation? ; Three types of knowledge about an innovation ; Early versus late knowers of innovations -- The persuasion stage -- The decision stage -- The implementation stage : Re-invention ; How much re-invention occurs? ; Re-invention is not necessarily bad ; Why does re-invention occur? -- The confirmation stage : Dissonance ; Discontinuance -- Are there stages in the innovation-decision process? : Process versus variance research ; Evidence of stages ; The hierarchy-of-effects ; Stages of change -- Communication channels by stages in the innovation-decision process ; Categorizing communication channels : Mass media versus interpersonal channels ; Cosmopolite versus localite channels ; The Bass forecasting model -- Communication channels by adopter categories -- The innovation-decision period : The rate of awareness-knowledge and rate of adoption ; The length of the innovation-decision period by adopter category 00 How the internet is changing the innovation-decision process.
6. Attributes of innovations and their rate of adoption : Rate of adoption -- Research on the attributes of innovations : Measuring the attributes of innovations ; Organizations as the units of adoption ; Postdiction versus prediction -- Relative advantage : Economic factors and rate of adoption ; Status aspects of innovations ; Overadoption ; Relative advantage and rate of adoption ; Preventive innovations ; The effects of incentives ; Mandates for adoption -- Compatibility : Compatibility with values and beliefs ; Compatibility with previously introduced ideas ; Compatibility with needs ; Compatibility and rate of adoption ; Technology clusters ; Naming an innovation ; Positioning an innovation ; Acceptability research -- Indigenous knowledge systems -- Complexity -- Trialibility -- Observability -- 7. Innovativeness and adopter categories : Classifying adopter categories on the bases of innovativeness ; The s-shaped curve of adoption and normality ; Measuring organizational innovativeness ; Who adopts? ; Adopter categorization -- Adopter categories as ideal types : Innovators: venturesome ; Early adopters: respect ; Early majority: deliberate ; Late majority: skeptical ; Laggards: traditional -- Characteristics of adopter categories : Socioeconomic characteristics ; Personality variables ; Communication behavior ; Audience segmentation and adopter categories ; The innovativeness/needs paradox and the strategy of least resistance ; Network influences on innovativeness -- 8. Diffusion networks : Models of communication flows : The hypodermic needle model ; The two-step flow model -- Homophily and heterophily in communication networks : Homophily and heterophily ; Homophily as a barrier to diffusion -- Measuring opinion leadership and network links -- Monomorphic and polymorphic opinion leadership -- Characteristics of opinion leaders : External communication ; Accessibility ; Socioeconomic status ; Innovativeness ; Innovativeness, opinion leadership, and system norms ; Do opinion leaders matter? -- Diffusion networks : Cluster studies -- Communication network analysis ; The strength-of-weak-ties theory ; Who is linked to whom in networks? ; Social learning theory -- The critical mass in the diffusion of interactive innovations : The concept of critical mass ; Watching while being watched ; Individual Thresholds for adoption ; Why do individuals adopt prior to the critical mass? ; Networks and the turbocharger effect ; Strategies for getting to the critical mass -- 9. The change agent : Targeting -- Change agents as linkers : The sequence of change agent roles -- Factors in change agent success : Change agent efforts ; Client orientation ; Compatibility with clients' needs ; Change agent empathy -- Communication campaigns -- Homophily and change agent contact : Change agents' contact with lower-status clients ; Para-professional aides ; Change agent credibility ; Inauthentic professionalization of aides -- The use of opinion leaders : The role of demonstrations -- Clients' evaluative ability -- Centralized and decentralized diffusion systems : Advantages and disadvantages of decentralized diffusion -- 10. Innovation in organizations : Types of innovation-decisions -- Organizations : Virtual organizations -- Organizational innovativeness : Size and organizational innovativeness ; Structural characteristics and organizational innovativeness ; The role of champions -- The innovation process in organizations -- Stages in the innovation process : Agenda-setting ; Matching ; Redefining/restructuring ; Clarifying ; Routinizing -- New communication technologies in organizations -- 11. Consequences of innovations: Studying consequences -- Classifications of consequences : Desirable versus undesirable consequences ; Direct versus indirect consequences ; Anticipated versus unanticipated consequences -- Form, function, and meaning of an innovation -- Achieving a dynamic equilibrium -- Equality in the consequences of innovations : The communication effects gap -- Gap-widening consequences of the diffusion of innovations ; Social structure and the equality of consequences ; Strategies for narrowing gaps ; Wider gaps are not inevitable.
Summary: This references concerns the history of the spread of new ideas. It explains how inventions are almost always perceived as uncertain or even risky.
Item type Location Call number Copy Status Date due
BOOK BOOK Mesa Lab HM621 .R57 2003 (Browse shelf) 1 Available

Includes bibliographical references (p. 477-535) and indexes.

1. Elements of diffusion : What is diffusion? -- Four main elements in the diffusion of innovation : The innovation ; Communication channels ; Time ; A social system -- 2. History of diffusion research : The beginnings of diffusion research in Europe : Gabriel Trade and imitation ; Georg Simmel's stranger ; The British and German-Austrian diffusionists -- The rise of diffusion research traditions : Paradigms and invisible colleges ; The anthropology research tradition ; Early sociology ; Rural sociology ; Public health and medical sociology ; Communication ; Marketing ; Geography ; General sociology ; Trends by diffusion research traditions -- A typology of diffusion research -- 3. Contributions and criticisms of diffusion research : The status of diffusion research today -- Criticisms of diffusion research : The pro-innovation bias of diffusion research ; The individual-blame bias in diffusion research ; The recall problem in diffusion research ; The issue of equality in the diffusion of innovations -- 4. Generation of innovations : The innovation-development process : Recognizing a problem or need ; Basic and applied research ; Development ; Commercialization ; Diffusion and adoption ; Consequences -- Socioeconomic status, equality, and innovation development -- Tracing the innovation-development process : The shortcomings of tracer studies ; Future research on the innovation-development process -- The agricultural model -- 5. Innovation-decision process : A model of the innovation-decision process -- The knowledge stage : Which comes first, needs or awareness of an innovation? ; Three types of knowledge about an innovation ; Early versus late knowers of innovations -- The persuasion stage -- The decision stage -- The implementation stage : Re-invention ; How much re-invention occurs? ; Re-invention is not necessarily bad ; Why does re-invention occur? -- The confirmation stage : Dissonance ; Discontinuance -- Are there stages in the innovation-decision process? : Process versus variance research ; Evidence of stages ; The hierarchy-of-effects ; Stages of change -- Communication channels by stages in the innovation-decision process ; Categorizing communication channels : Mass media versus interpersonal channels ; Cosmopolite versus localite channels ; The Bass forecasting model -- Communication channels by adopter categories -- The innovation-decision period : The rate of awareness-knowledge and rate of adoption ; The length of the innovation-decision period by adopter category 00 How the internet is changing the innovation-decision process.

6. Attributes of innovations and their rate of adoption : Rate of adoption -- Research on the attributes of innovations : Measuring the attributes of innovations ; Organizations as the units of adoption ; Postdiction versus prediction -- Relative advantage : Economic factors and rate of adoption ; Status aspects of innovations ; Overadoption ; Relative advantage and rate of adoption ; Preventive innovations ; The effects of incentives ; Mandates for adoption -- Compatibility : Compatibility with values and beliefs ; Compatibility with previously introduced ideas ; Compatibility with needs ; Compatibility and rate of adoption ; Technology clusters ; Naming an innovation ; Positioning an innovation ; Acceptability research -- Indigenous knowledge systems -- Complexity -- Trialibility -- Observability -- 7. Innovativeness and adopter categories : Classifying adopter categories on the bases of innovativeness ; The s-shaped curve of adoption and normality ; Measuring organizational innovativeness ; Who adopts? ; Adopter categorization -- Adopter categories as ideal types : Innovators: venturesome ; Early adopters: respect ; Early majority: deliberate ; Late majority: skeptical ; Laggards: traditional -- Characteristics of adopter categories : Socioeconomic characteristics ; Personality variables ; Communication behavior ; Audience segmentation and adopter categories ; The innovativeness/needs paradox and the strategy of least resistance ; Network influences on innovativeness -- 8. Diffusion networks : Models of communication flows : The hypodermic needle model ; The two-step flow model -- Homophily and heterophily in communication networks : Homophily and heterophily ; Homophily as a barrier to diffusion -- Measuring opinion leadership and network links -- Monomorphic and polymorphic opinion leadership -- Characteristics of opinion leaders : External communication ; Accessibility ; Socioeconomic status ; Innovativeness ; Innovativeness, opinion leadership, and system norms ; Do opinion leaders matter? -- Diffusion networks : Cluster studies -- Communication network analysis ; The strength-of-weak-ties theory ; Who is linked to whom in networks? ; Social learning theory -- The critical mass in the diffusion of interactive innovations : The concept of critical mass ; Watching while being watched ; Individual Thresholds for adoption ; Why do individuals adopt prior to the critical mass? ; Networks and the turbocharger effect ; Strategies for getting to the critical mass -- 9. The change agent : Targeting -- Change agents as linkers : The sequence of change agent roles -- Factors in change agent success : Change agent efforts ; Client orientation ; Compatibility with clients' needs ; Change agent empathy -- Communication campaigns -- Homophily and change agent contact : Change agents' contact with lower-status clients ; Para-professional aides ; Change agent credibility ; Inauthentic professionalization of aides -- The use of opinion leaders : The role of demonstrations -- Clients' evaluative ability -- Centralized and decentralized diffusion systems : Advantages and disadvantages of decentralized diffusion -- 10. Innovation in organizations : Types of innovation-decisions -- Organizations : Virtual organizations -- Organizational innovativeness : Size and organizational innovativeness ; Structural characteristics and organizational innovativeness ; The role of champions -- The innovation process in organizations -- Stages in the innovation process : Agenda-setting ; Matching ; Redefining/restructuring ; Clarifying ; Routinizing -- New communication technologies in organizations -- 11. Consequences of innovations: Studying consequences -- Classifications of consequences : Desirable versus undesirable consequences ; Direct versus indirect consequences ; Anticipated versus unanticipated consequences -- Form, function, and meaning of an innovation -- Achieving a dynamic equilibrium -- Equality in the consequences of innovations : The communication effects gap -- Gap-widening consequences of the diffusion of innovations ; Social structure and the equality of consequences ; Strategies for narrowing gaps ; Wider gaps are not inevitable.

This references concerns the history of the spread of new ideas. It explains how inventions are almost always perceived as uncertain or even risky.

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