Diffusion of innovations / Everett M. Rogers
By: Rogers, Everett M.Publisher: New York : Free Press, 2003Edition: 5th ed.Description: xxi, 551 p. : ill. ; 24 cm.ISBN: 0743222091; 9780743222099.Subject(s): Diffusion of innovations | Diffusion of innovations -- Study and teaching -- History
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|BOOK||Mesa Lab||HM621 .R57 2003 (Browse shelf)||1||Available|
Includes bibliographical references (p. 477-535) and indexes.
1. Elements of diffusion : What is diffusion? -- Four main elements in the diffusion of innovation : The innovation ; Communication channels ; Time ; A social system -- 2. History of diffusion research : The beginnings of diffusion research in Europe : Gabriel Trade and imitation ; Georg Simmel's stranger ; The British and German-Austrian diffusionists -- The rise of diffusion research traditions : Paradigms and invisible colleges ; The anthropology research tradition ; Early sociology ; Rural sociology ; Public health and medical sociology ; Communication ; Marketing ; Geography ; General sociology ; Trends by diffusion research traditions -- A typology of diffusion research -- 3. Contributions and criticisms of diffusion research : The status of diffusion research today -- Criticisms of diffusion research : The pro-innovation bias of diffusion research ; The individual-blame bias in diffusion research ; The recall problem in diffusion research ; The issue of equality in the diffusion of innovations -- 4. Generation of innovations : The innovation-development process : Recognizing a problem or need ; Basic and applied research ; Development ; Commercialization ; Diffusion and adoption ; Consequences -- Socioeconomic status, equality, and innovation development -- Tracing the innovation-development process : The shortcomings of tracer studies ; Future research on the innovation-development process -- The agricultural model -- 5. Innovation-decision process : A model of the innovation-decision process -- The knowledge stage : Which comes first, needs or awareness of an innovation? ; Three types of knowledge about an innovation ; Early versus late knowers of innovations -- The persuasion stage -- The decision stage -- The implementation stage : Re-invention ; How much re-invention occurs? ; Re-invention is not necessarily bad ; Why does re-invention occur? -- The confirmation stage : Dissonance ; Discontinuance -- Are there stages in the innovation-decision process? : Process versus variance research ; Evidence of stages ; The hierarchy-of-effects ; Stages of change -- Communication channels by stages in the innovation-decision process ; Categorizing communication channels : Mass media versus interpersonal channels ; Cosmopolite versus localite channels ; The Bass forecasting model -- Communication channels by adopter categories -- The innovation-decision period : The rate of awareness-knowledge and rate of adoption ; The length of the innovation-decision period by adopter category 00 How the internet is changing the innovation-decision process.
6. Attributes of innovations and their rate of adoption : Rate of adoption -- Research on the attributes of innovations : Measuring the attributes of innovations ; Organizations as the units of adoption ; Postdiction versus prediction -- Relative advantage : Economic factors and rate of adoption ; Status aspects of innovations ; Overadoption ; Relative advantage and rate of adoption ; Preventive innovations ; The effects of incentives ; Mandates for adoption -- Compatibility : Compatibility with values and beliefs ; Compatibility with previously introduced ideas ; Compatibility with needs ; Compatibility and rate of adoption ; Technology clusters ; Naming an innovation ; Positioning an innovation ; Acceptability research -- Indigenous knowledge systems -- Complexity -- Trialibility -- Observability -- 7. Innovativeness and adopter categories : Classifying adopter categories on the bases of innovativeness ; The s-shaped curve of adoption and normality ; Measuring organizational innovativeness ; Who adopts? ; Adopter categorization -- Adopter categories as ideal types : Innovators: venturesome ; Early adopters: respect ; Early majority: deliberate ; Late majority: skeptical ; Laggards: traditional -- Characteristics of adopter categories : Socioeconomic characteristics ; Personality variables ; Communication behavior ; Audience segmentation and adopter categories ; The innovativeness/needs paradox and the strategy of least resistance ; Network influences on innovativeness -- 8. Diffusion networks : Models of communication flows : The hypodermic needle model ; The two-step flow model -- Homophily and heterophily in communication networks : Homophily and heterophily ; Homophily as a barrier to diffusion -- Measuring opinion leadership and network links -- Monomorphic and polymorphic opinion leadership -- Characteristics of opinion leaders : External communication ; Accessibility ; Socioeconomic status ; Innovativeness ; Innovativeness, opinion leadership, and system norms ; Do opinion leaders matter? -- Diffusion networks : Cluster studies -- Communication network analysis ; The strength-of-weak-ties theory ; Who is linked to whom in networks? ; Social learning theory -- The critical mass in the diffusion of interactive innovations : The concept of critical mass ; Watching while being watched ; Individual Thresholds for adoption ; Why do individuals adopt prior to the critical mass? ; Networks and the turbocharger effect ; Strategies for getting to the critical mass -- 9. The change agent : Targeting -- Change agents as linkers : The sequence of change agent roles -- Factors in change agent success : Change agent efforts ; Client orientation ; Compatibility with clients' needs ; Change agent empathy -- Communication campaigns -- Homophily and change agent contact : Change agents' contact with lower-status clients ; Para-professional aides ; Change agent credibility ; Inauthentic professionalization of aides -- The use of opinion leaders : The role of demonstrations -- Clients' evaluative ability -- Centralized and decentralized diffusion systems : Advantages and disadvantages of decentralized diffusion -- 10. Innovation in organizations : Types of innovation-decisions -- Organizations : Virtual organizations -- Organizational innovativeness : Size and organizational innovativeness ; Structural characteristics and organizational innovativeness ; The role of champions -- The innovation process in organizations -- Stages in the innovation process : Agenda-setting ; Matching ; Redefining/restructuring ; Clarifying ; Routinizing -- New communication technologies in organizations -- 11. Consequences of innovations: Studying consequences -- Classifications of consequences : Desirable versus undesirable consequences ; Direct versus indirect consequences ; Anticipated versus unanticipated consequences -- Form, function, and meaning of an innovation -- Achieving a dynamic equilibrium -- Equality in the consequences of innovations : The communication effects gap -- Gap-widening consequences of the diffusion of innovations ; Social structure and the equality of consequences ; Strategies for narrowing gaps ; Wider gaps are not inevitable.
This references concerns the history of the spread of new ideas. It explains how inventions are almost always perceived as uncertain or even risky.