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Atmospheric chemistry and physics : from air pollution to climate change / John H. Seinfeld, Spyros N. Pandis.

By: Seinfeld, John H.
Contributor(s): Pandis, Spyros N, 1963-.
Publisher: Hoboken, New Jersey : John Wiley & Sons, Inc., [2016]Copyright date: 2016Edition: Third edition.Description: xxvi, 1120 pages : illustrations ; 29 cm.Content type: text Media type: unmediated Carrier type: volumeISBN: 9781118947401; 1118947401.Subject(s): Atmospheric chemistry | Air -- Pollution | Environmental chemistry | Air -- Pollution | Atmospheric chemistry | Environmental chemistry | Science | ScienceAdditional physical formats: Online version:: Atmospheric chemistry and physics.DDC classification: 551.51/1 LOC classification: QC879.6 | .S45 2016
Contents:
Ch. 1 The Atmosphere -- 1.1.History and Evolution of Earth's Atmosphere -- 1.2.Climate -- 1.3.Layers of the Atmosphere -- 1.4.Pressure in the Atmosphere -- 1.5.Temperature in the Atmosphere -- 1.6.Expressing the Amount of a Substance in the Atmosphere -- 1.7.Airborne Particles -- 1.8.Spatial and Temporal Scales of Atmospheric Processes -- Problems -- References Ch. 2 Atmospheric Trace Constituents -- 2.1.Atmospheric Lifetime -- 2.2.Sulfur-Containing Compounds -- 2.3.Nitrogen-Containing Compounds -- 2.4.Carbon-Containing Compounds -- 2.5.Halogen-Containing Compounds -- 2.6.Atmospheric Ozone -- 2.7.Particulate Matter (Aerosols) -- 2.8.Mercury -- 2.9.Emission Inventories -- Appendix 2.1 US Air Pollution Legislation -- Appendix 2.2 Hazardous Air Pollutants (Air Toxics) -- Problems -- References Ch. 3 Chemical Kinetics -- 3.1.Order of Reaction -- 3.2.Theories of Chemical Kinetics -- 3.3.The Pseudo-Steady-State Approximation -- 3.4.Reactions of Excited Species -- 3.5.Termolecular Reactions -- 3.6.Chemical Families -- 3.7.Gas-Surface Reactions -- Problems -- References Ch. 4 Atmospheric Radiation and Photochemistry -- 4.1.Radiation -- 4.2.Radiative Flux in the Atmosphere -- 4.3.Beer- Lambert Law and Optical Depth -- 4.4.Actinic Flux -- 4.5.Atmospheric Photochemistry -- 4.6.Absorption of Radiation by Atmospheric Gases -- 4.7.Absorption by O2 and O3 -- 4.8.Photolysis Rate as a Function of Altitude -- 4.9.Photodissociation of o3 to Produce O and O(1D) -- 4.10.Photodissociation of NO2 -- Problems -- References Ch. 5 Chemistry of the Stratosphere -- 5.1.Chapman Mechanism -- 5.2.Nitrogen Oxide Cycles -- 5.3.HOx Cycles -- 5.4.Halogen Cycles -- 5.5.Reservoir Species and Coupling of the Cycles -- 5.6.Ozone Hole -- 5.7.Heterogeneous (Nonpolar) Stratospheric Chemistry -- 5.8.Summary of Stratospheric Ozone Depletion -- 5.9.Transport and Mixing in the Stratosphere -- 5.10.Ozone Depletion Potential -- Problems -- References Ch. 6 Chemistry of the Troposphere -- 6.1.Production of Hydroxyl Radicals in the Troposphere -- 6.2.Basic Photochemical Cycle of NO2, NO, and O3 -- 6.3.Atmospheric Chemistry of Carbon Monoxide -- 6.4.Atmospheric Chemistry of Methane -- 6.5.The NOx and NOy Families -- 6.6.Ozone Budget of the Troposphere and the Role of NOx -- 6.7.Troposphere Reservoir Molecules -- 6.8.Relative Roles of VOC and NOx in Ozone Formation -- 6.9Simplified Organic/NOx Chemistry -- 6.10.Chemistry of Nonmethane Organic Compounds in the Troposphere -- 6.11.Atmospheric Chemistry of Biogenic Hydrocarbons -- 6.12.Atmospheric Chemistry of Reduced Nitrogen Compounds -- 6.13.Atmospheric Chemistry (Gas Phase) of Sulfur Compounds -- 6.14.Tropospheric Chemistry of Halogen Compounds -- 6.15.Atmospheric Chemistry of Mercury -- Appendix 6 Organic Functional Groups -- Problems -- References Ch. 7 Chemistry of the Atmospheric Aqueous Phase -- 7.1.Liquid Water in the Atmosphere -- 7.2.Absorption Equilibria and Henry's Law -- 7.3.Aqueous-Phase Chemical Equilibria -- 7.4.Aqueous-Phase Reaction Rates -- 7.5.S(IV)-S(VI) Transformation and Sulfur Chemistry -- 7.6.Dynamic Behavior of Solutions with Aqueous-Phase Chemical Reactions -- Appendix 7.1 Thermodynamic and Kinetic Data -- Appendix 7.2 Additional Aqueous-Phase Sulfur Chemistry -- Appendix 7.3 Aqueous-Phase Nitrite and Nitrate Chemistry -- Appendix 7.4 Aqueous-Phase Organic Chemistry -- Appendix 7.5 Oxygen and Hydrogen Chemistry -- Problems -- References Ch. 8 Properties of the Atmospheric Aerosol -- 8.1.The Size Distribution Function -- 8.2.Ambient Aerosol Size Distributions -- 8.3.Aerosol Chemical Composition -- 8.4.Spatiotemporal Variation -- Problems -- References Ch. 9 Dynamics of Single Aerosol Particles -- 9.1.Continuum and Noncontinuum Dynamics: the Mean Free Path -- 9.2.The Drag on a Single Particle: Stokes' Law -- 9.3.Gravitational Settling of an Aerosol Particle -- 9.4.Motion of an Aerosol Particle in an External Force Field -- 9.5.Brownian Motion of Aerosol Particles -- 9.6.Aerosol and Fluid Motion -- 9.7.Equivalent Particle Diameters -- Problems -- References Ch. 10 Thermodynamics of Aerosols -- 10.1.Thermodynamic Principles -- 10.2.Aerosol Liquid Water Content -- 10.3.Equilibrium Vapor Pressure Over a Curved Surface: the Kelvin Effect -- 10.4.Thermodynamics of Atmospheric Aerosol Systems -- 10.5. Aerosol Thermodynamic Models -- Problems -- References Ch. 11 Nucleation -- 11.1.Classical Theory of Homogenous Nucleation: Kinetic Approach -- 11.2.Classical Homogenous Nucleation Theory: Constrained Equilibrium -- 11.3.Recapitulation of Classical Theory -- 11.4.Experimental Measurement of Nucleation Rates -- 11.5.Modifications of the Classical Theory and More Rigorous Approaches -- 11.6 Binary Homogenous Nucleation -- 11.7.Binary Nucleation in the H2SO4-H2O System -- 11.8.Nucleation on an Insoluble Foreign Surface -- 11.9.Ion-Induced Nucleation -- 11.10.Atmospheric New-Particle Formation -- Appendix 11 The Law of Mass Action -- Problems -- References Ch. 12 Mass Transfer Aspects of Atmospheric Chemistry -- 12.1.Mass and Heat Transfer to Atmospheric Particles -- 12.2.Mass Transport Limitations in Aqueous-Phase Chemistry -- 12.3.Mass Transport and Aqueous-Phase Chemistry -- 12.4.Mass Transfer to Falling Drops -- 12.5.Characteristic Time for Atmospheric Aerosol Equilibrium -- Appendix 12 Solution of the Transient Gas-Phase Diffusion Problem: Equations (12.4)-(12.7) -- Problems -- References Ch. 13 Dynamics of Aerosol Populations -- 13.1.Mathematical Representations of Aerosol Size Distributions -- 13.2.Condensation -- 13.3.Coagulation -- 13.4.The Discrete General Dynamic Equation -- 13.5.The Continuous General Dynamic Equation -- Appendix 13.1 Additional Mechanisms of Coagulation -- Appendix 13.2 Solution of (13.73) -- Problems -- References Ch. 14 Atmospheric Organic Aerosols -- 14.1.Chemistry of Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation -- 14.2.Volatility of Organic Compounds -- 14.3.Idealized Description of Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation -- 14.4.Gas-Particle Partitioning -- 14.5.Models of SOA Formation and Evolution -- 14.6.Primary Organic Aerosol -- 14.7.The Physical State of Organic Aerosols -- 14.8.SOA Particle-Phase Chemistry -- 14.9.Aqueous-Phase Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation -- 14.10.Estimates of the Global Budget of Atmospheric Organic Aerosol -- Problems -- References Ch. 15 Interaction of Aerosols with Radiation -- 15.1.Scattering and Absorption of Light by Small Particles -- 15.2.Visibility -- 15.3.Scattering, Absorption, and Extinction Coefficients From Mie Theory -- 15.4.Calculated Visibility Reduction Based on Atmospheric Data -- Appendix 15 Calculation of Scattering and Extinction Coefficients by Mie Theory -- Problems -- References Ch. 16 Physical and Dynamic Meteorology -- 16.1.Temperature in the Lower Atmosphere -- 16.2.Atmospheric Stability -- 16.3.The Moist Atmosphere -- 16.4.Basic Conservation Equations for the Atmospheric Surface Layer -- 16.5.Variation of Wind with Height in the Atmosphere -- Appendix 16.1 Properties of Water and Water Solutions -- Appendix 16.2 Derivation of the Basic Equations of Surface-Layer Atmospheric Fluid Mechanics -- Problems -- References Ch. 17 Cloud Physics -- 17.1.Equilibrium of Water Droplets in the Atmosphere -- 17.2.Cloud and Fog Formation -- 17.3.Growth Rate of Individual Cloud Droplets -- 17.4.Growth of a Droplet Population -- 17.5.Cloud Condensation Nuclei -- 17.6.Cloud Processing of Aerosols -- 17.7.Other Forms of Water in the Atmosphere -- Appendix 17 Extended Kohler Theory -- Problems -- References Ch. 18 Atmospheric Diffusion -- 18.1.Eulerian Approach -- 18.2.Lagrangian Approach -- 18.3.Comparison of Eulerian and Lagrangian Approaches -- 18.4.Equations Governing the Mean Concentration of Species in Turbulence Ch. 19 Dry Deposition -- 19.1.Deposition Velocity -- 19.2.Resistance Model for Dry Deposition -- 19.3.Aerodynamic Resistance -- 19.4.Quasilaminar Resistance -- 19.5.Surface Resistance -- 19.6.Measurement of Dry Deposition -- 19.7.Some Comments on Modeling and Measurement of Dry Deposition -- Problems -- References Ch. 20 Wet Deposition -- 20.1.General Representation of Atmospheric Wet Removal Processes -- 20.2.Below-Cloud Scavenging of Gases -- 20.3.Precipitation Scavenging of Particles -- 20.4.In-Cloud Scavenging -- 20.5.Acid Deposition -- 20.6.Acid Deposition Process Synthesis -- Problems -- References Ch. 21 General Circulation of the Atmosphere -- 21.1.Hadley Cell -- 21.2.Ferrell Cell and Polar Cell -- 21.3.Coriolis Force -- 21.4.Geostrophic Windspeed -- 21.5.The Thermal Wind Relation -- 21.6.Stratospheric Dynamics -- 21.7.The Hydrologic Cycle -- Problems -- References Ch. 22 Global Cycles: Sulfur and Carbon -- 22.1.The Atmospheric Sulfur Cycle -- 22.2.The Global Carbon Cycle -- 22.3.Solution for a Steady-State Four-Compartment Model of the Atmosphere -- Problems -- References Ch. 23 Global Climate -- 23.1.Earth's Energy Balance -- 23.2.Radiative Forcing -- 23.3.The Greenhouse Effect -- 23.4.Climate-Forcing Agents -- 23.5.Cosmic Rays and Climate -- 23.6.Climate Sensitivity -- 23.7.Simplified Dynamic Description of Climate Forcing and Response -- 23.8.Climate Feedbacks -- 23.9.Relative Radiative Forcing Indices -- 23.10.Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Change -- 23.11.Conclusion -- Problems -- References Ch. 24 Aerosols and Climate -- 24.1.Scattering-Absorbing Model of an Aerosol Layer -- 24.2.Cooling Versus Heating of an Aerosol Layer -- 24.3.Scattering Model of an Aerosol Layer for a Nonabsorbing Aerosol -- 24.4.Upscatter Fraction -- 24.5.Optical Depth and Column Forcing -- 24.6.Internal and External Mixtures -- 24.7.Top-of-the-Atmosphere Versus Surface Forcing -- 24.8.Indirect Effects of Aerosols on Climate -- Problems -- References Ch. 25 Atmospheric Chemical Transport Models -- 25.1.Introduction -- 25.2.Box Models -- 25.3.Three-Dimensional Atmospheric Chemical Transport Models -- 25.4.One-Dimensional Lagrangian Models -- 25.5.Other Forms of Chemical Transport Models -- 25.6.Numerical Solution of Chemical Transport Models -- 25.7.Model Evaluation -- 25.8.Response of Organic and Inorganic Aerosols to Changes in Emission -- Problems -- References Ch. 26 Statistical Models -- 26.1.Receptor Modeling Methods -- 26.2.Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) -- 26.3.Factor Analysis -- 26.4.Methods Incorporating Wind Information -- 26.5.Probability Distributions for Air Pollutant Concentrations -- 26.6.Estimation of Parameters in the Distributions -- 26.7.Order Statistics of Air Quality Data -- 26.8.Exceedances of Critical Levels -- 26.9.Alternative Forms of Air Quality Standards -- 26.10.Relating Current and Future Air Pollutant Statistical Distributions -- Problems -- References Appendix A Units and Physical Constants -- Appendix B Rate Constants of Atmospheric Chemical Reactions -- Appendix C Abbreviations.
Summary: A detailed account of the chemistry and physics of the atmosphere - for graduate students, professionals and libraries involved in environmental, civil and chemical engineering projects and studies.
List(s) this item appears in: 2021 New Titles
Item type Current location Call number Copy number Status Date due Barcode Item holds
BOOK BOOK NCAR Library
Foothills Lab
QC879.6 .S45 2016 1 Available 50583020010975
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Includes bibliographical references and index.

Ch. 1 The Atmosphere -- 1.1.History and Evolution of Earth's Atmosphere -- 1.2.Climate -- 1.3.Layers of the Atmosphere -- 1.4.Pressure in the Atmosphere -- 1.5.Temperature in the Atmosphere -- 1.6.Expressing the Amount of a Substance in the Atmosphere -- 1.7.Airborne Particles -- 1.8.Spatial and Temporal Scales of Atmospheric Processes -- Problems -- References Ch. 2 Atmospheric Trace Constituents -- 2.1.Atmospheric Lifetime -- 2.2.Sulfur-Containing Compounds -- 2.3.Nitrogen-Containing Compounds -- 2.4.Carbon-Containing Compounds -- 2.5.Halogen-Containing Compounds -- 2.6.Atmospheric Ozone -- 2.7.Particulate Matter (Aerosols) -- 2.8.Mercury -- 2.9.Emission Inventories -- Appendix 2.1 US Air Pollution Legislation -- Appendix 2.2 Hazardous Air Pollutants (Air Toxics) -- Problems -- References Ch. 3 Chemical Kinetics -- 3.1.Order of Reaction -- 3.2.Theories of Chemical Kinetics -- 3.3.The Pseudo-Steady-State Approximation -- 3.4.Reactions of Excited Species -- 3.5.Termolecular Reactions -- 3.6.Chemical Families -- 3.7.Gas-Surface Reactions -- Problems -- References Ch. 4 Atmospheric Radiation and Photochemistry -- 4.1.Radiation -- 4.2.Radiative Flux in the Atmosphere -- 4.3.Beer- Lambert Law and Optical Depth -- 4.4.Actinic Flux -- 4.5.Atmospheric Photochemistry -- 4.6.Absorption of Radiation by Atmospheric Gases -- 4.7.Absorption by O2 and O3 -- 4.8.Photolysis Rate as a Function of Altitude -- 4.9.Photodissociation of o3 to Produce O and O(1D) -- 4.10.Photodissociation of NO2 -- Problems -- References Ch. 5 Chemistry of the Stratosphere -- 5.1.Chapman Mechanism -- 5.2.Nitrogen Oxide Cycles -- 5.3.HOx Cycles -- 5.4.Halogen Cycles -- 5.5.Reservoir Species and Coupling of the Cycles -- 5.6.Ozone Hole -- 5.7.Heterogeneous (Nonpolar) Stratospheric Chemistry -- 5.8.Summary of Stratospheric Ozone Depletion -- 5.9.Transport and Mixing in the Stratosphere -- 5.10.Ozone Depletion Potential -- Problems -- References Ch. 6 Chemistry of the Troposphere -- 6.1.Production of Hydroxyl Radicals in the Troposphere -- 6.2.Basic Photochemical Cycle of NO2, NO, and O3 -- 6.3.Atmospheric Chemistry of Carbon Monoxide -- 6.4.Atmospheric Chemistry of Methane -- 6.5.The NOx and NOy Families -- 6.6.Ozone Budget of the Troposphere and the Role of NOx -- 6.7.Troposphere Reservoir Molecules -- 6.8.Relative Roles of VOC and NOx in Ozone Formation -- 6.9Simplified Organic/NOx Chemistry -- 6.10.Chemistry of Nonmethane Organic Compounds in the Troposphere -- 6.11.Atmospheric Chemistry of Biogenic Hydrocarbons -- 6.12.Atmospheric Chemistry of Reduced Nitrogen Compounds -- 6.13.Atmospheric Chemistry (Gas Phase) of Sulfur Compounds -- 6.14.Tropospheric Chemistry of Halogen Compounds -- 6.15.Atmospheric Chemistry of Mercury -- Appendix 6 Organic Functional Groups -- Problems -- References Ch. 7 Chemistry of the Atmospheric Aqueous Phase -- 7.1.Liquid Water in the Atmosphere -- 7.2.Absorption Equilibria and Henry's Law -- 7.3.Aqueous-Phase Chemical Equilibria -- 7.4.Aqueous-Phase Reaction Rates -- 7.5.S(IV)-S(VI) Transformation and Sulfur Chemistry -- 7.6.Dynamic Behavior of Solutions with Aqueous-Phase Chemical Reactions -- Appendix 7.1 Thermodynamic and Kinetic Data -- Appendix 7.2 Additional Aqueous-Phase Sulfur Chemistry -- Appendix 7.3 Aqueous-Phase Nitrite and Nitrate Chemistry -- Appendix 7.4 Aqueous-Phase Organic Chemistry -- Appendix 7.5 Oxygen and Hydrogen Chemistry -- Problems -- References Ch. 8 Properties of the Atmospheric Aerosol -- 8.1.The Size Distribution Function -- 8.2.Ambient Aerosol Size Distributions -- 8.3.Aerosol Chemical Composition -- 8.4.Spatiotemporal Variation -- Problems -- References Ch. 9 Dynamics of Single Aerosol Particles -- 9.1.Continuum and Noncontinuum Dynamics: the Mean Free Path -- 9.2.The Drag on a Single Particle: Stokes' Law -- 9.3.Gravitational Settling of an Aerosol Particle -- 9.4.Motion of an Aerosol Particle in an External Force Field -- 9.5.Brownian Motion of Aerosol Particles -- 9.6.Aerosol and Fluid Motion -- 9.7.Equivalent Particle Diameters -- Problems -- References Ch. 10 Thermodynamics of Aerosols -- 10.1.Thermodynamic Principles -- 10.2.Aerosol Liquid Water Content -- 10.3.Equilibrium Vapor Pressure Over a Curved Surface: the Kelvin Effect -- 10.4.Thermodynamics of Atmospheric Aerosol Systems -- 10.5. Aerosol Thermodynamic Models -- Problems -- References Ch. 11 Nucleation -- 11.1.Classical Theory of Homogenous Nucleation: Kinetic Approach -- 11.2.Classical Homogenous Nucleation Theory: Constrained Equilibrium -- 11.3.Recapitulation of Classical Theory -- 11.4.Experimental Measurement of Nucleation Rates -- 11.5.Modifications of the Classical Theory and More Rigorous Approaches -- 11.6 Binary Homogenous Nucleation -- 11.7.Binary Nucleation in the H2SO4-H2O System -- 11.8.Nucleation on an Insoluble Foreign Surface -- 11.9.Ion-Induced Nucleation -- 11.10.Atmospheric New-Particle Formation -- Appendix 11 The Law of Mass Action -- Problems -- References Ch. 12 Mass Transfer Aspects of Atmospheric Chemistry -- 12.1.Mass and Heat Transfer to Atmospheric Particles -- 12.2.Mass Transport Limitations in Aqueous-Phase Chemistry -- 12.3.Mass Transport and Aqueous-Phase Chemistry -- 12.4.Mass Transfer to Falling Drops -- 12.5.Characteristic Time for Atmospheric Aerosol Equilibrium -- Appendix 12 Solution of the Transient Gas-Phase Diffusion Problem: Equations (12.4)-(12.7) -- Problems -- References Ch. 13 Dynamics of Aerosol Populations -- 13.1.Mathematical Representations of Aerosol Size Distributions -- 13.2.Condensation -- 13.3.Coagulation -- 13.4.The Discrete General Dynamic Equation -- 13.5.The Continuous General Dynamic Equation -- Appendix 13.1 Additional Mechanisms of Coagulation -- Appendix 13.2 Solution of (13.73) -- Problems -- References Ch. 14 Atmospheric Organic Aerosols -- 14.1.Chemistry of Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation -- 14.2.Volatility of Organic Compounds -- 14.3.Idealized Description of Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation -- 14.4.Gas-Particle Partitioning -- 14.5.Models of SOA Formation and Evolution -- 14.6.Primary Organic Aerosol -- 14.7.The Physical State of Organic Aerosols -- 14.8.SOA Particle-Phase Chemistry -- 14.9.Aqueous-Phase Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation -- 14.10.Estimates of the Global Budget of Atmospheric Organic Aerosol -- Problems -- References Ch. 15 Interaction of Aerosols with Radiation -- 15.1.Scattering and Absorption of Light by Small Particles -- 15.2.Visibility -- 15.3.Scattering, Absorption, and Extinction Coefficients From Mie Theory -- 15.4.Calculated Visibility Reduction Based on Atmospheric Data -- Appendix 15 Calculation of Scattering and Extinction Coefficients by Mie Theory -- Problems -- References Ch. 16 Physical and Dynamic Meteorology -- 16.1.Temperature in the Lower Atmosphere -- 16.2.Atmospheric Stability -- 16.3.The Moist Atmosphere -- 16.4.Basic Conservation Equations for the Atmospheric Surface Layer -- 16.5.Variation of Wind with Height in the Atmosphere -- Appendix 16.1 Properties of Water and Water Solutions -- Appendix 16.2 Derivation of the Basic Equations of Surface-Layer Atmospheric Fluid Mechanics -- Problems -- References Ch. 17 Cloud Physics -- 17.1.Equilibrium of Water Droplets in the Atmosphere -- 17.2.Cloud and Fog Formation -- 17.3.Growth Rate of Individual Cloud Droplets -- 17.4.Growth of a Droplet Population -- 17.5.Cloud Condensation Nuclei -- 17.6.Cloud Processing of Aerosols -- 17.7.Other Forms of Water in the Atmosphere -- Appendix 17 Extended Kohler Theory -- Problems -- References Ch. 18 Atmospheric Diffusion -- 18.1.Eulerian Approach -- 18.2.Lagrangian Approach -- 18.3.Comparison of Eulerian and Lagrangian Approaches -- 18.4.Equations Governing the Mean Concentration of Species in Turbulence Ch. 19 Dry Deposition -- 19.1.Deposition Velocity -- 19.2.Resistance Model for Dry Deposition -- 19.3.Aerodynamic Resistance -- 19.4.Quasilaminar Resistance -- 19.5.Surface Resistance -- 19.6.Measurement of Dry Deposition -- 19.7.Some Comments on Modeling and Measurement of Dry Deposition -- Problems -- References Ch. 20 Wet Deposition -- 20.1.General Representation of Atmospheric Wet Removal Processes -- 20.2.Below-Cloud Scavenging of Gases -- 20.3.Precipitation Scavenging of Particles -- 20.4.In-Cloud Scavenging -- 20.5.Acid Deposition -- 20.6.Acid Deposition Process Synthesis -- Problems -- References Ch. 21 General Circulation of the Atmosphere -- 21.1.Hadley Cell -- 21.2.Ferrell Cell and Polar Cell -- 21.3.Coriolis Force -- 21.4.Geostrophic Windspeed -- 21.5.The Thermal Wind Relation -- 21.6.Stratospheric Dynamics -- 21.7.The Hydrologic Cycle -- Problems -- References Ch. 22 Global Cycles: Sulfur and Carbon -- 22.1.The Atmospheric Sulfur Cycle -- 22.2.The Global Carbon Cycle -- 22.3.Solution for a Steady-State Four-Compartment Model of the Atmosphere -- Problems -- References Ch. 23 Global Climate -- 23.1.Earth's Energy Balance -- 23.2.Radiative Forcing -- 23.3.The Greenhouse Effect -- 23.4.Climate-Forcing Agents -- 23.5.Cosmic Rays and Climate -- 23.6.Climate Sensitivity -- 23.7.Simplified Dynamic Description of Climate Forcing and Response -- 23.8.Climate Feedbacks -- 23.9.Relative Radiative Forcing Indices -- 23.10.Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Change -- 23.11.Conclusion -- Problems -- References Ch. 24 Aerosols and Climate -- 24.1.Scattering-Absorbing Model of an Aerosol Layer -- 24.2.Cooling Versus Heating of an Aerosol Layer -- 24.3.Scattering Model of an Aerosol Layer for a Nonabsorbing Aerosol -- 24.4.Upscatter Fraction -- 24.5.Optical Depth and Column Forcing -- 24.6.Internal and External Mixtures -- 24.7.Top-of-the-Atmosphere Versus Surface Forcing -- 24.8.Indirect Effects of Aerosols on Climate -- Problems -- References Ch. 25 Atmospheric Chemical Transport Models -- 25.1.Introduction -- 25.2.Box Models -- 25.3.Three-Dimensional Atmospheric Chemical Transport Models -- 25.4.One-Dimensional Lagrangian Models -- 25.5.Other Forms of Chemical Transport Models -- 25.6.Numerical Solution of Chemical Transport Models -- 25.7.Model Evaluation -- 25.8.Response of Organic and Inorganic Aerosols to Changes in Emission -- Problems -- References Ch. 26 Statistical Models -- 26.1.Receptor Modeling Methods -- 26.2.Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) -- 26.3.Factor Analysis -- 26.4.Methods Incorporating Wind Information -- 26.5.Probability Distributions for Air Pollutant Concentrations -- 26.6.Estimation of Parameters in the Distributions -- 26.7.Order Statistics of Air Quality Data -- 26.8.Exceedances of Critical Levels -- 26.9.Alternative Forms of Air Quality Standards -- 26.10.Relating Current and Future Air Pollutant Statistical Distributions -- Problems -- References Appendix A Units and Physical Constants -- Appendix B Rate Constants of Atmospheric Chemical Reactions -- Appendix C Abbreviations.

A detailed account of the chemistry and physics of the atmosphere - for graduate students, professionals and libraries involved in environmental, civil and chemical engineering projects and studies.

Other editions of this work

Atmospheric chemistry and physics : by Seinfeld, John H. ©2006
Atmospheric chemistry and physics : by Seinfeld, John H. ©1998
Atmospheric chemistry and physics : by Seinfeld, John H. ©1998
Atmospheric chemistry and physics of air pollution / by Seinfeld, John H. ©1986
Atmospheric chemistry and physics : by Seinfeld, John H. ©2006

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